My research focuses on nanoscale electrochemistry. I specialize in designing and constructing electrochemical scanning probe microscopes, that produce ultra-high resolution maps of electrochemical activity at surfaces and interfaces. I quantify and visualize chemical reactions at carbon nanotubes, graphene, boron doped diamond,  micro-crystals, single living cells, nanoparticles, and within nanoscale batteries.

Electrochemical Scanning Probe Microscopy

I have invented new techniques which have improved radically the resolution and functionality of electrochemical scanning probe microscopy. Two techniques that I have been involved in developing are:

Intermittent-Contact Scanning electrochemical Microscopy

Scanning Electrochemical Cell Microscopy

Biological Applications of Nanoscale Electrochemistry

I am particularly interested in applying electrochemical techniques to study biological and biophysical systems. This has previously involved using electrodes to directly detect oxygen produced during photosynthesis, as well as using nanopores to detect single proteins excreted during intracellular signalling.

Simulation and Scientific Programming

I have extensive experience in mathematical simulation, computational modelling and software engineering. I typically use finite element simulation methods to understand the transport of chemical on the nanoscale, and quantify the electrochemical response of electrochemical sensors.